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第二屆中美關係的人文基礎與跨文化交際國際學術研討會:分論壇一、二、三、四

 

分論壇一:美國語言教育研究

 

從語言旗艦項目看美國外語教育政策

國防科技大學文理澳门赌博游戏平台 焦新平

 

美國語言旗艦項目領導全國設計、支持和實施高級語言教育 。通過聯邦政府、教育和商業之間的創新合作,項目旨在培養將在下一代全球專業人士中佔據一席之地的學生 ,在對美國競爭力和美國安全至關重要的多種語言中爲他們提供更高的流利程度 。語言旗艦是美國外語和文化教學的突破 ,旨在幫助個人達到阿拉伯語,漢語  ,印地語 ,韓語,波斯語 ,葡萄牙語,俄語 ,斯瓦希里語,土耳其語和烏爾都語等重要語言的高級水平 。語言旗艦還支持語言教學中的新概念 ,包括創新大學和中小學的合作 ,開發阿拉伯語、中文和葡萄牙語的K-16管道課程。語言旗艦項目被授予在語言教育領域突出的美國大學 。項目體現了美國外語教育政策的革新  ,也是美國應對21世紀國家安全挑戰和提升國家綜合競爭力的重要手段。

 

Authentic materials in Chinese classroom: A survey study on learner perception

肯尼索州立大學黃莎

 

Authentic materials (AM) refer to language data produced in the process of real-life communication rather than for language teaching purposes. Many second language scholars believe AM bring benefits to language classrooms. However, there are concerns that due to difficulty vocabulary and structures contained in AM, using them may frustrate or demotivate learners. Chinese is one of the most difficult languages for American learners to learn, which may make it more challenging to incorporate AM into Chinese classes. Investigation into the perceptions of learners of Chinese as a foreign language (CFL learners) regarding the use of AM in Chinese classes will inform pedagogical suggestions to guide classroom instruction. However, thus far, an extremely limited number of studies has explored this issue. By collecting survey data from 145 CFL learners who studied in 12 universities and colleges in the U.S., this study answered the following research questions:1) How did the CFL learners generally perceive the effects of AM on their Chinese learning? 2) What factors related to learner’s perception of AM were revealed in the survey data? 3) Is there significant differences in learners’ perception between the group with classroom AM learning experience and those who had not have such experience? Descriptive statistic data showed that most CFL learners had positive views on AM. Principle component analysis revealed three main factors of learner perception of AM: Learning, Motivation & Engagement, and Frustration. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOV) revealed significant differences in the factor of Learning. CFL learners with classroom experience of AM expressed stronger beliefs of AM’s positive impacts on learning and they were also more inclined to include authentic materials in their Chinese class. Pedagogical suggestions will also be discussed in this presentation.

 

The Pedagogical Value of Films in Advanced-level Chinese Language Teaching

北卡羅來納大學教堂山分校 林佳

 

Watching movies benefits foreign language learning in many ways. This presentation investigates why and how to use movies as teaching materials in advanced-level Chinese classes. The researcher will discuss theoretical framework, instructional practice, and pedagogical design related to using contemporary Chinese films as teaching materials in language teaching. This presentation includes two parts: the linguistic and cultural values of the Chinese film in language teaching, and how to integrate movies in regular Chinese as a foreign language (CFL) classes in order to improve student language proficiency, cultural awareness, and critical thinking.

Film is a great means for integrated language training and culture study. Through watching Chinese movies, reading movie reviews, and making comments orally or in written language, students can improve their listening, reading, speaking, and writing competences in an integrated way. In addition to acquiring the colloquial conversations in movies, students can also learn some formal expressions from movie reviews and comments. Watching movies is also a good way to build contextual sensitivity while learning language. Understanding major cultural phenomena helps students construct a better understanding of China and as a result they can use language in a more culturally appropriate way.

This presentation starts with a discussion of the language abilities and competences of advanced-level CFL learners as described in the American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages (ACTFL) Proficiency Guidelines. The researcher then elaborates why it is beneficial to use Chinese movies as teaching materials after analyzing special needs and difficulties of advanced-level CFL learners. Taking CHIN 408, an advance-level CFL class offered at the University of North Carolina, as an example, the researcher provides a step-by-step demonstration on how to use movies for integrated language training. Lastly, criteria of movie selection for language teaching purpose are discussed.

 

體演文化教學法新探

——俄亥俄州立大學模式在國內漢語教學中的應用

福建師範大學海外教育澳门赌博游戏平台 蔡建豐

 

近二十年來 ,以俄亥俄州立大學東亞語言文學系爲基地,一種新興的漢語教學法——“體演文化教學法,在美國本土逐漸繁盛起來 。俄亥俄州立大學東亞語言文學系是美國中文教師學會發源地 ,設有迄今爲止全美唯一一箇中文教學法博士學位點,以著名漢學家吳偉克(Galal Walker)教授爲首的教學科研團隊創立了漢語作爲第二語言的體演文化教學法,在漢語教學上取得了卓有成效的成績。

中國國家漢辦和俄亥俄州立大學體演文化教學團隊在中國多地聯合舉辦了多期美國中文旗艦項目漢語教學法培訓班,爲來自中國各地不同高校漢語教師老師提供體演文化教學法培訓,通過現場觀摩、學習討論、試教實踐等方式瞭解體演文化教學法。其中有14位參訓教師接受了筆者針對培訓內容所做的調查。儘管老師們對體演文化教學法都有耳目一新的印象 ,但對這種教學法的認可度卻有所保留。調查結果顯示參訓教師具有以下較爲一致的觀點:

1體演法適合低齡、低水平學習者 。

2體演法更適合文化課教學而不是其他技能課型 。

3體演法難以在國內混合國籍的班級中推廣 。

4體演法不太適合自己所在澳门赌博游戏平台的漢語教學  。

爲什麼會有以上的共識 ?是因爲大家對體演法的瞭解還不夠深入全面?還是因爲體演法確實不適合國內的漢語教學 ?本研究將解答以上問題,力求爲體演文化教學法與國內漢語教學模式找到一個好的結合點。

 

An analytical research of major problem of Bilinguals for academic writing

四川大學錦江澳门赌博游戏平台 周露曼

 

English, as a global language, has become an irreplaceable part of the international trade market. The last 40 years have witnessed a rapid development of English education in Chinese universities which aims to cultivate more bilingual individuals for the property of China’s economy. The English education in China has made great achievements but also exposed many problems. To illustrate, poor English writing or academic writing is going to be taken as a focus for this paper, thereby aiming to discuss and analyse specific major writing problems of bilinguals who take Chinese as first language and English as second language.

 

美國留學生漢語口語焦慮原因中的漢語語序偏誤研究

---以四川大學海外教育澳门赌博游戏平台短期項目生爲例

四川大學 彭小曼

 

隨着經濟全球化和中國國際地位的日益上升,漢語在全世界得到了廣泛推廣,口語作爲一種重要的語言技能  ,口語表達中的焦慮對外語學習也有着不可忽視的影響,一直以來也引起了不少國內外的關注 。從偏誤語體上看 ,已有成果大多是對書面語序偏誤的研究 ,或是書面語與口語偏誤相結合,漢語口語語序偏誤的專題研究較少。

爲了有目的性、針對性地對川大的美國留學生的口語學習焦慮和漢語語序偏誤之間的關係進行調查分析,本文作者以四川大學海外教育澳门赌博游戏平台18位短期項目生爲主要調查對象 ,使用調查問卷、設計練習、模擬交際場景等方式來收集語料,用SPSS軟件進行數據分析。在理論分析和實際調查的基礎上主要進行幾個問題的研究:漢語語序偏誤是否會導致美國留學生漢語口語焦慮 ,他們有哪些漢語語序的偏誤,由此提出一些減少學習焦慮的建議。

 

探析新時期美國的語言政策

四川大學澳门赌博游戏平台 任倩

 

語言政策的研究爲研究美國問題提供了一個新的視角。在不同的歷史時期和社會背景下,美國產生了英語獨尊雙語教育語言多元化等不同的語言政策,但總的來說,英語一直處於主導地位。進入新世紀後,由於國家安全威脅的增加和國際競爭的加劇,美國政府越發重視外語教育。本文把語言政策分爲英語政策和外語政策兩個不同的主題,分析其在不同歷史時期尤其是奧巴馬和特朗普政府·時期的狀況,旨在歸納總結當前美國的語言政策的特點,產生的根源,以期預示美國社會未來的走向。同時,研究美國的語言政策,對於我國制定語言政策  ,實施語言國家也有重要的啓示。

 

News Discourse Analysis of Confucius Institute: A Diachronic Corpus-Based Study of Reports on U.S. Newspapers

西南財經大學 王豔慧

 

Since the establishment of the first Confucius Institute in 2005, it has always adhere to the principle of promoting Chinese language and culture. Owing to its rapid development, it has received considerable worldwide attention. Hence, the current research is directly toward the investigation of reports which related with Confucius institute from the year of 2005-2019 on the basis of framework theory. Through searching the key word “Confucius Institute” in LexisNexis database, 180 articles constitute the self-built corpus Reports of Confucius Institute Corpus (RCIC). With the method of quantitative content analysis, the results demonstrate that the theme in terms of education of Chinese language and the cultural soft power appeared with the highest frequency, one of the explanations for this phenomenon is the increasing influence of China and national language in the world stage, especially in the United States; Concerning the total number of related reports, it is represented by the characteristics of rising-falling-rising, factors such as political factors and public policy may account for such fluctuation, for example, the 5.17 instruction; As regards the general emotional tendency, most reports on mainstream media show a positive attitude to Confucius Institute. Under the approach of qualitative investigation, the present study reveals that the reports of Confucius Institute are relatively fixed in terms of the analysis of its news schema; Additionally, the concrete differences of ideology of these two different nations are embodied by the related reports in the present study, which to a great extent can be the valid evidence of the importance of mutual understanding. As an empirical-based research, these findings may provide useful and practical insights for the interpretation of reports of Confucius Institute overseas, especially concerning how to strengthen the mutual understanding of cross-culture between China and the United States.

 

從語言規劃視角看漢語在美國語言地位發展

國防科技大學國際關係澳门赌博游戏平台 許戈輝

 

美國語言政策緊密圍繞其國家戰略,隨着中國不斷崛起 ,中美大國競爭進一步加劇 ,研究美國漢語語言地位具有充分的現實意義。本文從語言規劃的視角  ,分析梳理美國漢語語言地位的發展現狀以及發展脈絡 ,梳理形成當前漢語語言地位的主要參與者角色。從語言學家Spolsky在其新著《語言管理》中的語言管理理論Language Management Theory)理論中的語言域(Domain)視角,去認識和解讀如基金會、政府、華人社區、澳门赌博游戏平台等規劃參與者在語言管理中扮演的角色作用。


 

分論壇二:美國政治、交通研究

 

Historical Interaction of Media and Populism in U.S.

國防科技大學 章瀚夫

 

Donald Trump may represent the latest successful combination of internet-based new media and populism. New media platforms are now a political battleground. Heavy investment by election campaigns and frequent appearances by politicians verify the significant role of new media in winning support, persuasion and mobilization. If now a politician does not interact with people on social media it can be interpreted as not being close to the people. This means the presence of new media in politics being a necessity or a “normal”. The case with Trump is that he continues to use twitter, among other social media platforms, as an operational part of his administration, hence effectively making it an almost unchecked element of his power. A politician who is close to the people but who wields unchecked power sounds a lot like a populist idea. New media and populism could be a mutually enhancive combination, as new power structure can be built along internet interpersonal relationship, going around the traditional political representation process. In history, populist politicians have valued media to proliferate messages with strong emotional appeal but maybe weaker senses that fits their target audience. Although “serious” media continue to exist, new types of media are lighter and easier to use in order to acquire readership, particularly to occupy time fragments and leisure time between more serious business. It therefore leads to a question: could the lightening media become a natural propaganda tool for populism?  This study attempts to answer this question by looking at how historical populists have harnessed media, especially new kinds of media of the time. It tries to explore the following aspects: the populist preference of media, the consequence of media “lightness” and the media-related goals of populist politicians.

 

The Dynamics of Populism in the United States

澳门赌博游戏平台馬克思主義澳门赌博游戏平台 範麗麗

 

In recent years, the specter of populism has wandered in the United States. Populism not only puts pressures on political institutions, tears apart societies, but also brings huge impacts on Western democracies. Research questions will focus on the rise of populism in America, and explore the dynamics of populism from multiple perspectives. The root cause of populism is the growing economic inequality which has triggered a series of social crises. Resentment is the fuse of populism. Trump's populist campaign pushed American populism to a climax. At the same time, the new Internet media is a combustion improver of populism, and it will have spillover effects on other countries. The dynamics of populism have different effects in the United States in different periods. I will closely examine such complex and challenging factors under evolving sociopolitical environments.

 

2018年中期選舉看民主黨競選策略的轉變

四川大學澳门赌博游戏平台 黃思傑

 

很多學者把美國政治體系比喻爲一部由總統駕駛、國會領航、聯邦法院督導的列車,而中期選舉則猶如一次例行的靠站檢修。自特朗普執政以來,美國社會問題層出不窮 ,政治極化現象也愈發嚴重,這就使得2018年中期選舉顯得尤爲重要 。從選舉結果來看,儘管民主黨未能真正掀起藍色浪潮 ,但他們仍成功奪回了對衆議院的控制 ,一掃之前選舉接連失敗的陰霾。在2018年中期選舉中 ,中期選舉鐵律特朗普的低支持率對民主黨較爲有利,但民主黨對自身競選策略的改變纔是他們取勝的關鍵所在 。不同於以往的選舉 ,民主黨競選人在2018年中期選舉中更加註重身份政治,試圖喚起女性、少數族裔和年輕人這些傳統民主黨選民的支持。此外 ,他們一致把矛頭對準飽受爭議的特朗普政府,猛烈抨擊其執政舉措,並提出了與之相反的競選綱領 ,如全民醫保、減稅、保護非法移民等。但值得注意的是,民主黨競選策略的轉變也彰顯了其內部所存在的問題。民主黨激進派的崛起無疑對民主黨內建制派(自由派和進步派)造成了巨大沖擊,這使得民主黨更難在短時間內調和黨內分歧。很多民主黨競選人的競選綱領在更大程度上只是對特朗普政府現行政策的被動反應 ,而非主動提出解決社會問題的方案。2018年中期選舉是美國政治的重要一環 ,也是美國民意的一次集中表達 ,通過分析民主黨在此次選舉中競選策略的轉變 ,我們不僅可以更好地瞭解美國政治的當前發展趨勢 ,也能更好地認識特朗普執政下的美國社會現狀。

 

中期選舉反映美國國內民意返潮

澳门赌博游戏平台馬克思主義澳门赌博游戏平台 孫國傑

 

當地時間2018116日,美國2018年中期選舉落下帷幕。縱觀此次選舉,共和黨以52席比47席的微弱優勢超過民主黨繼續控制參議院多數席位,而在衆議院內民主黨以232席比201席的結果從共和黨手中接管了衆議院。可以說兩黨目前處於僵持階段中 ,民主黨政治生存環境變好,共和黨雖然失去了衆議院的控制權 ,但最終計票並沒有較大差距 ,因此此次中選並不能視爲共和黨支持率的全面崩塌。

同時,僅僅以來最終的選舉結果我們可以獲得的信息極其有限 ,除了衆議院易主之外 ,美國政府內部基本沒有發生任何重大的變動。不過通過觀察在中期選舉結果背後的更多數據 ,我們可以發現美國社會發生了微妙的變化 。

 

特朗普政府移民政策的改革及其動因研究

四川大學澳门赌博游戏平台  吳雪敏

 

美國是一個移民之國 ,移民在推動美國社會發展進步的同時也帶來了很多的問題。特朗普自競選以來便拿移民政策改革,尤其是非法移民治理問題大做文章 。在讓美國再次偉大等口號下 ,特朗普政府提出了帶有明顯的種族主義和本土主義色彩的移民改革四大支柱,在國內國際社會中引起了廣泛爭議。

特朗普政府推行移民政策改革有着深刻而複雜的背景。除了自身和黨派的利益考量,還包括應對人口結構的巨大變化對美國政治、經濟和社會文化造成的影響和爲2020年總統大選取得勝利奠定基礎。本文希望通過對特朗普政府頒佈的移民政策進行跟蹤研究,從推行方式和內容等方面分析其改革的特點 ,探明其在特定時期做出相應變革的主客觀原因,並據此預估其政策的前景 。

 

中美貿易摩擦研究的知識圖譜及熱點主題解析

西安交通大學澳门赌博游戏平台 王瑋 李蓓嵐

 

由於中美貿易戰的爆發危機 ,國內學者對中美關係研究尤其是中美貿易摩擦的關注度持續上升,學術成果不斷涌現。因此,系統分析當前我國對中美貿易摩擦研究的總體趨勢,釐清研究重點 ,對後續研究中美關係人文與文化差異、改善中美關係有着借鑑意義 。 。[方法/過程]綜合運用MendeleyCitespace軟件對CNKI數據庫收錄的421篇涉及中美貿易摩擦研究的CSSCI論文進行可視化分析  ,通過繪製關鍵詞共現分析圖、科研合作網絡分析圖、領域共現分析圖等,討論當前中美貿易摩擦研究的核心主題、熱點前沿及主要研究機構 。[結果/結論]基於中美貿易摩擦研究文獻關鍵詞共現分析得出 ,當前研究核心主題爲中國應對中美貿易摩擦策略研究、特朗普政府對華發動貿易戰原因分析、中美貿易摩擦對雙方影響研究、中美貿易關係歷史路徑解析等;研究的熱點前沿還呈現出時代性與民族性突出、大衆化與多元化顯著、致力於中國對外傳播能力建設等特點 。通過科研合作分析圖得出,當前中美貿易摩擦研究呈現出跨學科趨勢  ,涉及文化、社會、政治等多個方面。未來有關中美貿易摩擦研究可以結合中美文化差異及國家形象建設來開展 ,以加強中美間跨文化交際 ,促進中美關係和平穩步發展 。

 

A Comparative Study

of Pragmatic Vagueness in Chinese and American Diplomatic Language

西南財經大學 伍琳燕

 

Vagueness is the inherent attribute of language. Pragmatic Vagueness is commonly regarded as a crucial strategy to achieve certain purposes in the communication. It is generally acknowledged that diplomatic language needs to convey the information precisely; however, speakers in the diplomatic occasions are expected to be polite. Therefore, diplomatic language is involved many vague expressions in that the speaker considers the Politeness Principle first and thus violating the Cooperative Principle inevitably. This thesis, based on the discourses from the press conferences of Chinese Foreign Ministry and U.S. Department of State, discusses the differences, similarities and causes of pragmatic vagueness in Chinese and American diplomatic language and its pragmatic functions under the theoretical framework of Cooperative Principle, and Politeness Principle.

The study found that, both Chinese diplomatic language and American diplomatic language violate the Cooperative Principle and observe the Politeness Principle, while Chinese diplomatic language more obviously tends to observe the maxims of the Politeness Principle. To be specific, the violations of the four maxims of the CP in Chinese and American data are roughly similar. However, the occurring times of the violation of quality, quantity and relevance as well as the observances of maxims of tact, generosity, approbation, modesty and sympathy in Chinese data are more than those in American data. Moreover, the causes of the similarities and differences can be concluded as the characteristics of diplomatic language, the different cultures and different diplomatic policies. As for the functions of pragmatic vagueness in diplomatic language, they can be summarized as being polite, evading the disagreement, withholding the information, self-protection, maintaining the friendly relationship.

Through the analyses of the press briefings of Chinese Foreign Ministry and U.S. Department of State, this comparative study of vagueness is supposed to help people understand the features and the intensions of Chinese and American diplomatic language usages from a comprehensive perspective. Besides, it may enlighten the diplomats on the apprehension and utilization of vagueness, and on the defense of the rights and interests of the countries and people concerned.

 

A Study to Reflect the Political Apathy of High School Students of Bangladesh

澳门赌博游戏平台馬克思主義澳门赌博游戏平台 Sudipto Sajol Kha

 

High school students (age 14-18) of Bangladesh are in high ground to accept the better of the state and the society due to their age and curiosity which shapes their moral. They are considered as the channel between the society and the future political culture of the state. This study shows that the minimal amount of high school students are interested in the recent political environment of Bangladesh and this creates a persistent political apathy. As a democratic country, Bangladesh has a wide range of political scopes. It is a matter of concern that Bangladesh’s very young high school students started to dislike the recent political environment. Because it is leading them to self-motivate themselves not to be involved in politics. Long term frustration over the morally poor political culture, a specific political apathy may put Bangladesh’s dynamic democracy in danger with probable weak leadership in future. Corruption, absence of credibility, lack of steps from the government and political violence really makes it hard for the high school students to decide in favor of politics. This study also tries to find out the causes behind this political apathy with relevant study data and analysis.

 


 

分論壇三:中美文學文化研究

 

薛濤詩英譯與中美之間的跨文化理解研究

攀枝花澳门赌博游戏平台 盧丙華

 

本文通過對比分析美國譯者對唐代女詩人薛濤詩英譯中產生的誤解與誤譯以及與中國譯者譯作在薛濤詩英譯的形式、和韻律以及文化上的差異 ,來探討薛濤詩英譯與中國文化的準確傳播、翻譯的文化誤區。首先在文化視野下薛濤詩英譯者的主體性研究,主要從他者操控下的女性主文翻譯觀和全球化視野下的文化翻譯觀兩個角度分析中西方譯者的文化主體性;從兩個大的角度進行分析:第一個角度是西方譯論下的國外主要英譯本,如 ,跨文化符際翻譯視角下的吉納維美·魏莎英譯本、語義翻譯和交際翻譯目的論下的瑪麗肯尼迪英譯本以及文本功能視域下珍妮拉森濤詩英譯本 ;第二個角度是傳統譯論下的國內英譯本 ,如 ,三美論在許淵衝薛濤詩英譯中的再現 ,包括意差的體現、音美的體現和的體現;信達雅一一張正則酵濤詩英譯  ,包括”——薛濤詩中的傳統文化詞彙的英譯,”——薛濤詩中文化典故的英譯 ,”——薛濤詩英韻律的呈現;在此基礎上探討薛濤詩英譯文化的過濾與補償包含民俗文化的英譯、專有名詞英譯、植物意象的英譯、動物意象的英譯、典故的英譯。

 

Reflections on Chinese and Western Historiographies

杜肯大學 李涇

 

Both China and the West have long and rich historiographical traditions. In this paper I explore the ways in which Chinese and Western historiographies can be compared and contrasted to each other along certain thematic lines. Among the thematic issues considered are the perceived nature and patterns of the historical process; historical and cultural milieus for history writing; politics and the historical discipline; the making of the historian and the roles he plays; perceived nature and patterns of the historical process; purpose and objectivity in historical study; historical agency; as well as political and sociocultural history. The paper will also consider the pedagogical implications of the some of the issues identified above to reflect on studying and teaching historiography in a cross-cultural environment.

 

An Analysis of A Streetcar Named Desire

from the Perspective of Female Body and Femininity

東北師範大學 白雨卉

 

In 1947, the American playwright Tennessee Williams published his masterpiece play A Streetcar Named Desire. The portrayal of the women in the play can be seen to be tragic. In the patriarchal society, women have only the right to be chosen, to be seen as angels or monsters. In such a society of unilateral ‘sexuality’ prevalence, women are imprisoned in cages, gradually strip off the nature of monsters. This play, by focusing on male violence against the female body, discipline, and bullying, shows the trauma experienced in the society dominated by the male voice. Nonetheless, although the male voice attaches derogation on female body and ego, women can still use their awakening body and identity to resist to gain the recognition of their own subjective consciousness.

 

A Postcolonial Perspective on Goldblatt’s Translation:

The Case of Life and Death Are Wearing Me Out

西南財經大學 李果

 

This article ‘A Postcolonial Perspective on Goldblatt’s Translation: The Case of Life and Death Are Wearing Me Out’ explores Howard Goldbatt’s translation of Chinese literature from the perspective of postcolonial theory. Goldblatt is an outstanding American Sinologist and the most productive translator of Chinese literatures who started his translation in 1978, and during the forty years he had translated over 60 works of more than 30 Chinese writers. He is famous for tranlasting The Red Sorghum, which won the 2012 Nobel Prize for Literature. Taking examples of his translation of Mo Yan’s Life and Death Are Wearing Me Out, the ideas that Goldblatt advanced in his essays, speeches and interviews, as well as some Chinese critics, professors and writers who concern self-colonialism, it analyses postcolonialism with the challenging concepts of “hybridity”, postcolonial translation theory and self-colonization; Goldblatt’s translation thoughts and his attitudes towards China and Chinese literature; as well as his translation strategies such as domestication and foreignization. This paper also discusses the previous views on the core issues of “faithfulness” and “unfaithfulness” in translation as well as the misunderstanding of two different cultures between China and America which occurs in literature translation. Goldblatt insists that ‘I translate, so I am’. He holds a passion for Chinese literature and he adores Chinese writers such as Mo Yan and Xiao Hong. Those findings may contribute to the mutual comprehension, frequent communication and active interaction between Chinese culture and American culture, and provide valuable insights for the future research of Chinese literature translation, especially concerning how great a role Howard Goldblatt has played in the process of Chinese literature “walking-out” and how does he function as a bridge across the cultures of two powers.

 

Cultural Default and its Translation Compensation Strategies from the Perspective of Relevance Theory—A Case Study of the Yao Naiqiang’ Version of the Scarlett Letter

西南財經大學  李豔

 

As people from the same cultural background will normally reach a consensus to some tacit information in their culture, writers will omit some self-evident background knowledge or cultural common sense to improve communication efficiency when writing literary works, the phenomenon of which is called cultural default. However, in the process of literary translation, if the cultural default cannot be properly and effectively handled and compensated, it will cause difficulties for foreign target readers to understand the original text, thus hindering cross-cultural communication. Therefore, relevance theory, the emerging theory with cognition and communication as its core, shed new light on the rendering of cultural default.

Relevance translation theory is put forward by Gutt, who regards translation as a kind of verbal communicative behavior and it includes the double ostensive-inferential process among the author, the translator and the readers. Therefore the translator has the responsibility of inferring the informative intention and representing it clearly for target readers.

The Scarlett Letter, a masterpiece of the American novelist Nathaniel Hawthorne, has been hailed as one of the most important books in the history of American romantic literature. Although the novel is very popular among scholars at home and abroad, few of them have analyzed the cultural default compensation strategies the translation versions employed. Therefore, based on the relevance translation theory, this paper takes the Chinese version of the Scarlett Letter by Yao Naiqiang, whose version has long been acclaimed as an authoritative translated texts in China, as a case study to explore the translator’s strategy of compensating cultural default. By comparing the examples of cultural default element in the Scarlett Letter with Yao’s translation version, the paper analyzes what compensation strategies of Yao has employed and how does he manages to deal with the cultural default based on the relevance theory. This paper finds that the translator has mainly adopted such translation strategies as literal translation, literal translation with footnotes, transliteration with footnotes, contextual amplification, adaptation, as well as emission to compensate the cultural default in the Chinese version.

The author employs the relevance theory to analyze the compensation strategies of cultural default in the Scarlett Letter, aiming to prove that relevance theory is powerfully interpretable in tackling the cultural phenomenon in the literary works. In addition, this paper offers a good comprehension to the relevance theory and provides some effective compensation strategies for cultural default to gap the cultural misunderstandings and promote the cultural exchanges between countries.

 

On Edna Pontellier’s Freedom-pursing in Kate Chopin’s The Awakening Through Chuang Tzu’s Thoughts of Freedom

四川大學 王鈺

 

Kate Chopin is a well-known American writer. The Awakening is her representative work and also a classic of feminist literature. The previous studies mainly look into feminist perspective or analysis of the deconstruction and construction of the heroine's self-awareness, subjective consciousness and even sexual consciousness, but only a few of them explore Edna Pontellier’s experience of freedom-pursing. Furthermore, for most critics the issues seem to be whether Edna’s suicide should be read as failure, tragedy, or triumph. It seems to me that the appropriate question to ask about Edna’s is not whether her behavior is justified, but what is revealed in it. On the basis of Chuang Tzu’s thoughts of freedom, this thesis would explore Edna’s experience of the pursuit of freedom as well as her suicide. There are five parts in this thesis. Part One is an introduction to the previous studies on The Awakening and the research purposes and structure of the thesis. Part Two outlines Chuang Tzu’s thoughts on freedom, covering the undertaker of freedom—three ideal personality and the presentation of freedom. Part Three focuses on Edna’s process of freedom- pursing in accordance with Chuang Tzu’s thoughts on freedom, including her liberation from social fame, transcendence from material merit and return to original self. Part Four discusses Edna’s final death as a state of perplexity of the contradiction between the oppression of patriarchal society and the spiritual freedom of self-awakening. Part Five is a conclusion to the thesis.

 

A Post-Colonial Perspective on the Issue of Identity in The Joy Luck Club

西南財經大學 吳黃梅

 

Amy Tan as an eminent Chinese-American female writer, has contributed a great deal to the differential between Chinese culture and American culture. The Joy Luck Club is the first masterpiece of Amy Tan. As a matter of fact, the name The Joy Luck Club was originated from a mahjong-playing club by immigrant Chinese mothers. It mainly elaborates the relationship between four pairs of mothers and daughters caused by their collision and compatibility of two different cultures. Due to the collision of the two cultures, they struggle for their respective cultural identity. This essay aims to explore their individual issue of identity of both Chinese mothers and American daughters, from the perspective of post-colonialism. In the mixed context of multi-culture, daughters and mothers are confused about it. Post-colonialism, as one of the most noticeable schools of cultural criticism at the turn of century, deserved to be delved into. This paper reveals that four mothers have strong personality with traditional Chinese values, while daughters are regarded as marginal person. Mothers are filled with characteristics of traditional Chinese women and as well as the Chinese mothers. To the contrary, daughters, living in a melting-pot, are confused about their own identity. However, these findings show that in such a converged environment, people are still strongly conscious about their own identity. This paper shed light on the discussion on difference between Chinese culture and American culture, so as to benefit intercultural communication. What is more, it can provide a significant reference for the future literature research on The Joy Luck Club.

 

The Embodiment of the Local Culture in Goldblatt’s Translation of Red Sorghum

西南財經大學 謝葉

 

Translation exists whenever there is cultural communication. Since the reform and opening-up, China has absorbed many works from the western world, but exported a few local literary works. Howard Goldblatt, an American translator, has made a great contribution to the spreading of Chinese works, especially the works written by Mo Yan. The translations of Goldblatt help Mo a lot to win Nobel Prize. In his translation, Goldblatt makes use of his comprehensive knowledge of Chinese tradition to balance the smoothness of reading and essence of novel. This paper tries to summarize how Goldblatt translates local cultural elements in Red Sorghum. In doing so, some useful insights for managing cultural differences between China and America are expected.

 

垮掉的一代的參禪之路——試讀凱魯亞克筆下的寒山子

四川大學澳门赌博游戏平台 熊軍

 

如果將20世紀60年代美國垮掉的一代運動定義爲一場狄奧尼索斯式的狂歡,那麼可以說這只是窺其表面罷了。在垮掉派作家反叛的面具之下,深刻烙印着的是以禪宗思想爲主體的東方哲學  。垮掉的一代身體力行地進行着禪宗實踐,企圖通過靜坐與冥想等方式來打破美國社會的紙醉金迷,重建個人的精神完整 。而在這一衆叛逆的東方學徒之間  ,凱魯亞克對於禪宗思想的實踐最爲亮眼  ,從《在路上》到《達摩流浪者》 ,凱魯亞克實現了從生命永恆意識到佛性本真的超越,而這一超越集中體現在其對於中國禪宗詩人寒山子的解讀之中 。寒山子之於凱魯亞克 ,正如盜天火的普羅米修斯之於人類 ,是其精神困境的希望所在。凱魯亞克在其作品《達摩流浪者》中對寒山子詩句的多處引用 ,不僅可以看做是東方傳統文學在大洋彼岸的異地生根,也是其追求精神超越的具體實踐  。但需要注意的是 ,以凱魯亞克爲代表的垮掉的一代對於禪宗思想的學習絕非簡單的生搬硬套,而是融入了美國式的精神內核 ,形成了頗富美國特色的垮掉禪 。

分論壇四:中美學科與跨文化研究

 

Teaching English Literature in America: A Chinese Professor’s Perspective

普渡大學 林力丹

 

How often do you come across a foreign professor or an English-speaking professor teaching Chinese literature in a Chinese college classroom? Probably not often or even never. Why? Because that is just how things are done in China. How often do you come across a Chinese professor teaching English literature in American college classroom? Probably not often but NOT never. This means that there are a few, though not many, Chinese professors teaching English literature in American college classroom. Luckily, I am one of them. People have asked me: how can you teach English literature to American students? How do they react to you as a professor?  Do they respect you? Do you like what you do? My paper presentation will share my experience teaching English literature in the English Department at Purdue University Fort Wayne, USA, including the challenges I have gone through.

 

跨文化視域下的大學生中美德俄文化價值觀比較研究

上海第二工業大學文理學部澳门赌博游戏平台 王錄

 

文化價值觀即人們對各種文化現象和文化行爲的看法與態度 。大學生的文化價值觀可以折射出該羣體的價值取向 。基於有關文化價值觀的理論 ,本文通過對S大學理工科大學生(n.=88澳门赌博游戏平台中美德俄四國文化價值觀的問卷調研發現,大學生對於德國和俄國的文化價值觀認識普遍比較欠缺,而對於中美文化價值觀的認識存在着顯著差異性(p0.05)。研究對於從跨文化視角瞭解大學生的文化價值觀認知,增強其對於文化差異的敏感性,提高其對於中國文化的自信從而不斷提升其跨文化交際能力 ,減少和避免跨文化交際中的誤解與衝突具有重要意義 。

 

From a Critical Reflection on Current Chinese Studies to a Self-Reflexive and Dialogical Chinese Studies

里士滿大學 高耿鬆

 

Since the poststructuralist and postmodernist theories were widely applied to Chinese studies in the West in late 1980s, basic concepts and assumptions of traditional sinology and the Cold War-style Chinese studies as an area studies have been contested.  While this poststructuralist and postmodern approach characterized by Rey Chow as “fundamental problematization of referentiality” has expanded the boundaries of Chinese studies by deconstructing the essentialist and monolithic understandings of Chinese ethnicity, nationality and language, it also incurs criticisms from two opposite directions. The more theory-minded China scholars (Gloria Davies, Elaine Jeffreys, etc.) criticize the existing Chinese studies for being still too much concerned with producing knowledge about China to make any substantial contributions to broader disciplinary knowledge and theoretical debate. By contrast, the more area-based China scholars (Mingdong Gu, Philips Huang, etc.) accuse existing Chinese studies of misusing western theories to do justice to the complexity of Chinese history, experience and text. What both the theory-minded China scholars and the area-based China scholars are lacking is a respectful listening and a productive dialogue between their respective research approaches. To address the limits and bridge the gaps between the seemingly contrastive theory-oriented Chinese studies and the area-based Chinese studies, this presentation proposes a self-reflexive and dialogical Chinese studies. Such a self-reflexive and dialogical approach needs the two existing distinctive Chinese studies models not only to learn from each other specific concepts and theses, but also to use the other’s fundamental assumption and problematic to self-reflexively challenge and enrich one’s own to form a more inclusive and more integrative theoretical framework, which can produce both well-informed knowledge about China and make notable contributions to theoretical debate and disciplinary advancement. 

 

跨文化語境中的比爾·波特與中國文化

——以《空谷幽蘭尋訪現代中國隱士》爲例

四川大學文學與新聞澳门赌博游戏平台 鄧鳳鳴

 

美國翻譯家、漢學家比爾·波特曾憑藉《空谷幽蘭尋訪現代中國隱士》在國內外引發對隱士的熱議潮流 。多年以來,他憑藉對中國文化的滿腔熱情學習中文,進行了大量的詩歌、佛教典籍的英語翻譯 ,更是堅持用親身遊歷、尋訪的方式用文字和圖片記錄他親歷的中國文化、風土人情 。在比較文學與跨文化研究視域下細讀《空谷幽蘭》 ,本文發現了比爾·波特對中國文化 ,尤其是古代文化的獨特態度:比爾·波特超越了很多外國作家或因異國情調的他者的相異性魅力 ,或因對本土文化的質疑和對對社會弊病根治的渴望,而以實用主義傾向對中國文化進行主動地、創造性地、契合時代和自身需求的採用 ,而是通過對東西方經典文獻、考古發現的詳細梳理,似王國維二重證據法之針對性 ,還原遠遊旅程的真實場景,探問內化於中國傳統文化、潛藏於中國人內心的隱士情節  。對於比爾·波特筆下的中國現代隱士形象剖析,本文認爲不必動輒上升至東西雙方看與被看的二元對立 ,也無需拘泥於因一般哲學意義上的他者差異帶來的具體層面的西方文化中作爲他者的中國文化形象,應該從跨文化語境中比較文學命題的角度重視對比爾·波特與中國文化關係的探索。

 

記憶認同敘事——論嚴歌苓旅美期間的歷史題材小說創作

中山大學中文系(珠海) 李燕英

 

旅美期間的嚴歌苓創作了《扶桑》、《人寰》、《無出路咖啡館》、《橙血》、《魔旦》等帶有歷史題材性質的小說,與之前相比 ,受移民記憶和經驗的程度較深,當然亦有對故國曆史的回望 ,這促使她去關注那些被時光碎片所掩埋和遺忘的華人移民歷史,這其中既摻雜着她移民美國期間的現實經驗和感悟  ,又帶有她對故國記憶的眷戀與反思。試圖以文學創作的方式建立起對母國和旅居國家的雙重認同,嚴歌苓旅美期間歷史題材性質的小說創作顯示出複雜多元的文化與記憶如何有效整合於個人的記憶和經驗 ,也表明集體認同與個人記憶的複雜糾纏以及印象深刻的個人記憶在創作中所發揮的作用。跨越現實和過往的雙層時空的敘事結構安排 ,對帶有鮮明文化記憶特性的空間場所的選擇 ,敘事視角的靈活運用  ,這些敘事層面的獨有策略是嚴歌苓相比其他作家的與衆不同之處 ,與她在美國期間接受的創意寫作訓練有着較大的關聯,同樣是她的作品被更多人接受和認可的緣由之一 。除此之外,契合集體記憶的內容表述和情節安排 ,也是其作品產生廣泛影響的原因,對其中的利弊得失人們要區別對待冷靜分析 。

 

The Dissemination and Influence of American Musicals in China

四川大學 陳之童

 

The musical is a comprehensive theatrical performance art that integrates music, dance, dialogues, performances and other forms, which has a history of more than 100 years. As an important part of American culture, American musicals have been influential in China since they were first introduced into China in 1987, after more than 30 years of dissemination.

Taking the Broadway classic musicals as an example, the author of this thesis discusses the following five aspects: an introduction of American musicals represented by Broadway, the 30-year history of American musicals spreading in China, the influence of American musicals on Chinese musicals, the impact and integration of Chinese culture and American culture represented by American musicals, the problems faced by Chinese musicals and the solutions. It is helpful to promote intercultural communication between China and the United States by exploring the collision and integration of Sino-US cultural exchanges through the dissemination and influence of a unique cultural carrier – American musicals in China.

 

美國公路文學在中國的接受元素簡析

——以《在路上》與《萬里任禪遊》爲例

四川大學 李長寅

 

作爲美國文學中的一種形式,公路文學作品裏講述了主人公旅途中遇到的人、發生的故事,與此相伴的還有他們的心路歷程。雖然中西方存在文化背景差異,但是這些作品以路途反映人生、社會爲特色,因此也同樣受到中國讀者的追捧。本文以傑克凱魯亞克的《在路上》和羅伯特M•波西格的《萬里任禪遊》的社會背景 ,思想文化以及在中國的影響爲研究對象,分析作品中與中國傳統文化相切合的因素,從而找到該兩部文學作品被中國讀者接受的原因。

本文主要由四部分構成 ,第一節簡要談讀者耳熟能詳的美國公路文學作品 ,介紹《在路上》和《萬里任禪遊》的內容大要,通過其相似的時代背景建立起兩部作品之間的聯繫。第二節通過分析《在路上》與《萬里任禪遊》的文本說明兩部小說中體現的中國傳統文化和心理 ,本節包含三個分論點  ,即作品中的禪宗思想與老子和莊子的思想相契合;作品中提倡的文化多樣性與春秋戰國時期百家爭鳴的現象不謀而合 ;作品中的崇尚科學與莊子的思想以及當代我國價值觀一致  ;作品中主人公之間流露的情感符合中國忠義孝的倫理綱常 。第三節對比小說中的社會運動與中國社會轉型,昇華小說引起中國讀者思考的原因  。最後一節爲結語 ,總結該兩部小說在中國的影響及意義。

本研究注重用文本說話 ,筆者希望通過簡析這兩部公路文學作品,引起中國更多讀者對這類型小說的關注,拓寬對公路文學在中國的研究視野 。

 

 

試析迪士尼動畫《花木蘭》中的中美文化碰撞與融合

四川大學澳门赌博游戏平台 周俊宏

 

《花木蘭》是1998年美國迪士尼公司根據我國南北朝時期民歌《木蘭詩》改編而成的動畫電影,該影片一經放映就引起了海內外熱議。迪士尼公司將進一步推出《花木蘭》真人版電影,預計於2020年上映。電影作爲大衆流行文化的一種重要的媒介在傳播本國意識形態與思想價值觀念方面具有潛移默化的作用 。由於中美兩國在歷史和傳統、觀念和文化上有着深刻差異 ,《花木蘭》在吸取並保留了《木蘭詩》中的部分中國文化與元素之外,承載着與美國文化相契合的精神內涵與觀念主題 。如此看來 ,《花木蘭》既體現了中美文化之間的交流與融合,又體現了兩國在價值觀等方面的差異。

本文將兩個文本對比 ,試圖探索改編後的《花木蘭》在哪些具體的方面體現着中美文化的碰撞與交融。本文通過追溯歷史 ,從主流價值觀和文化根基兩方面探討兩國文化發生碰撞的緣由 ;另外,從時代發展潮流和兩國文化自身的包容性等方面分析中美文化日益交融的緣由 。《花木蘭》中體現的不是單純的中國文化 ,也不是純美國文化 ,而是兩種文化融合之下的新文本,這預示着中美文化交流的進步。在全球化的當代 ,文化邊界開始模糊,文化多元化發展成爲了時代的主旋律,各國各類文化互學互鑑  ,相互影響。中美文化只有在碰撞和衝突中求同存異 ,才能實現更加有效的交流和學習 ,達到一種基於理解的共處,而這種平衡的狀態將爲中美關係奠定堅實的文化基礎  。